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In this part of our project webpage, we describe the assessment system for the school experiment, development, piloting and adaptation of the tools

The assessment plan intends to reveal the effects of the experimental teaching and learning process. We developed new test items – even a new test – for covering major fields of visual skills development or, when necessary, adapted and added new items to existing assessment tools. 

In the pre-test, we use the following assessment tools to describe visual skills and abilities of students at the start of the developmental program:

  • Online interactive tests  developed for eDIA, the electronic diagnostic assessment system by the Research Group on Teaching Theory, Institute of Education, University of Szeged About the system, cf. brochure on eDIA  (in English). Papers on technology based assessment by the developers of eDIA:

    • Csapó, B., & Molnár, G. (2019). Online diagnostic assessment in support of personalized teaching and learning: The eDia System. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1522. PDF

    • Molnár, G., & Csapó, B. (2019). Making the psychological dimension of learning visible: Using technology-based assessment to monitor students’ cognitive development. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1368. PDF

    • Pásztor, A., Molnár, Gy. & Csapó, B. (2015). Technology-based assessment of creativity in educational context: the case of divergent thinking and its relation to mathematical achievement. Thinking Skills and Creativity. PDF.


Skills assessed

Spatial perception

Components of spatial abilities that are closely related to everyday life and work are assessed by online, interactive tests in colour. Four clusters of spatial skills are represented: (1) visualization, (2) reconstruction of space (only in Grade 8-12), (3) spatial orientation, (4) mental rotation. Our measurement tools contain knowledge elements appearing in visual culture curriculums, in everyday life and also in psychology tests. Test items have been developed by Bernadett Babály, architect, art educator and educational researcher. Papers on the components of colour perception and interpretation and their development:

  • Babály, B., Kárpáti, A. (2016). The impact of creative construction tasks on visuospatial information processing and problem solving. Acta Politechnica Hungarica, 13(7), 159-180. PDF
  • Kárpáti, A., Babály, B., Budai, L. (2014). Developmental assessment of spatial abilities through interactive, online 2D and virtual 3D tasks. The International Journal of Arts Education / Guo Ji Yi Shu Jiao Yu Xue Kan, 12(2), 94-124. PDF


Colour perception and interpretation

Arts education curricula generally refer colour sensation as colour sensitivity. The questions concerned pupils' attitudes towards tasks, their computer use habits, their school grades and their basic knowledge related to colour theory. Four dimensions of colour perception and interpretation were measured: colour sensitivity (37 items), colour-and shape recognition (19 items), colour memory (9 items) and colour and meaning (10 items). Test items have been developed by Alisa Tóth, visual artist, art educator and educational researcher. Papers on the components of spatial abilities and their development:

  • Tóth, A., Kárpáti, A., Molnár, G. (submitted). Colour perception and interpretation: assessment of visual literacy construct of lower primary school children. International Journal of Information and Education Technology.
  • Tóth, A., Molnár, G., Kárpáti, A.. (submitted). Teaching about colour – the legacy of the Bauhaus masters. International Journal of Art and Design Education.

Visual communication

Visual communication, an important part of visual culture, is generally identified with pictorial statements which transmit artistic and conventional messages, objects or pictures containing information not necessarily associated with artistic intention. Communication through images uses an autonomous language, in which artistic and practical dimension are clearly separated. Our test items identify the developmental level of the non-artistic use of visual communication: 1) Visual recognition: perception, analysis and memory; 2) Visual problem solving; 3) Visual creation and expression; 4) Decoding visual messages. Test items have been developed by Tünde Simon, visual artist, art educator and educational researcher. Papers on the components of visual communication and their development:

  • Kárpáti, A., & Simon, T. (2014). Symbolisation in child art - creation and interpretation of visual metaphors.  In: Benedek, A., Nyíri, K. (eds.) The Power of the Image. Emotion, Expression, Explanation. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang Verlag,  143-160. PDF
  • Kárpáti A., Simon T. (2013): Symbolisation in Child Art: Creation and interpretation of visual metaphors and assessment of symbolisation skills. In: VISUAL LEARNING: EMOTION – EXPRESSION – EXPLANATION. Fourth Visual Learning Conference, Budapest, 15-16 November 2013. PDF  

Combinative and divergent thinking

Test items have been developed by Benő Csapó,  educational researcher, artist-photographer, and Attila Pásztor, psychologist, educational researcher.

Testing time for the above described Spatial Skills / Colour Perception and Interpretation / Visual Communication/ Combinative and divergent thinking tests: 90 minutes, realised in two, o 45-minute sessions. These online, interactive tests provided immediate, detailed feedback for teachers through the eDIA system that were discussed with teachers to arrive at developmental suggestions.  

Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP)

 This test was developed by Klaus Urban és Hans Jellen, cf. description of the test by Urban and Jellen (2004). Testing time: 20 minutes. Drawing task of paper. Feedback for teachers was sent after coding and analysis.

Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI)

This survey was developed by Attila Oláh, psychologist, (cf. lecture by Attila Oláh, 2009) for measuring the protective personality traits (psychological antibodies). The survey was adapted for educational use by Alice Bredács, art educator and educational researcher. In previous studies, Alice Bredács proved the effects of arts education on psychological immune competence for adolescents – our study will provide data on the beneficial effects of the arts for ages 6-17. The questionnaire was made available on paper and online, teachers could select the suitable form.

Teachers received feedback on the status of their students in Positive Thinking, Sense of Control, Sense of Coherence, Creative Self-concept, sense of self-growth, challenge orientation, Social Monitoring Capacity, problem-solving Capacity, Self- efficacy, Social Mobilizing Capacity, Social Creating Capacity, Syncronicity, Goal Orientation, lmpulse Control, Emotional Control, lrritability Control). Data for teachers with explanation of the PICI scales was provided after analysis. Testing time: 20 minutes.

Qualitative assessment

New assessment methods were introduced as ongoing tools of self-, peer and frontal assessment. Five members of this research group participated in the standardisation of the Visual Rubrics for Production and Reception developed by Talita Groenendijk and Folkert Haanstra. As tools for developmental assessment, the Rubrics support self-assessment by students and also improve evaluation practices of teachers, who sill out the same rubrics as their students to compare their perceptions of the criteria. Publications on the method:

We also employed portfolio assessment of project work ‒ a collection of plans, research notes, versions and the final work of a project task.  Criteria for the jury assessing portfolios was adapted from the assessment systems of our two largest student competitions of art and design for primary and secondary schools. Members of the research group have been involved in the development of both systems and have been taking part in their juries.

Assessment procedure: pre- and post-tests with control groups

Control groups for all age groups that match the experimental groups in social background, educational quality (in our case: a good level of art education) that employed traditional methods) and school infrastructure took the tests.  Data collected on national samples with the same tests also support the analysis of visual skills development. A limitation of our study is the relatively small number of students per age group that allows only cautious generalisations about skills development possible for ages 11-18 (Grades 5-12). However, the major focus, the assessment of the usability of curricular modules could be realised.